Political Economy

Ranking Universities
06 August, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
Ranking universities amounts to detaching them from their social contexts and hence denies the social role of education.
Crop Insurance: Another dressed up scheme
02 August, 2018, C.P. Chandrasekhar
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) launched in 2016 which is supplemented with Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (RWBCIS), have failed to deliver what it had promised. The number of farmers insured under this scheme has fallen and the claims paid to farmers has fallen from 98% to 61%. The scheme seems to be benefitting the insurance companies as there has been rise in gross premiums paid to these companies by government.
Empty Promises
18 July, 2018, C.P. Chandrasekhar
Together with measures like loan write-offs offered by some BJP States and an ostensibly much-improved crop insurance scheme (PMFBY), this hike in MSPs is seen to have confirmed the pro-farmer tilt of the Narendra Modi government. The timing of the Modi government’s MSP hike for kharif crops leads to the question of whether it is backed by the financial allocations needed to deliver on them.
Why didn't Socialism have Over-production Crises?
02 July, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
The period after 2008 has witnessed prolonged overproduction crisis which was not seen in the old socialist economies. A market driven capitalist economy that has its foundations on the principle of antagonism is the source of this glut.
Trump Versus the Rest
18 June, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
Donald Trump’s protectionist stance at the G-7 summit is an example of how disunited capitalist countries are on a possible solution to the capitalist crisis. Because of the position of the US economy, Trump can afford to hold on to his protectionist policies while enlarging the fiscal deficit. What is wrong about this strategy is the possibility of long term repercussions, not just for America but for the capitalist world as a whole.
The Modi Government's "Achievement"
03 June, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
Concluding the four years of Modi government is an unparalleled process of social and political retrogression in the country. A look at the declining per capita real income in agriculture and privatization of education and other essential services points at an expedition of neo-liberal tendencies during the Modi regime.
A Tale of Two Discourses
19 April, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
The Hindutva bubble has clearly burst. Mass demonstrations by peasants, traders, doctors, teachers, students and even school children in the past few days have shown that not only the fear gripping the people is over but also the Indian political discourse is shifting towards material-practical matters, again acquiring a resemblance to what it had been in the pre-Modi years.
Commoditization and the Public Sphere
02 April, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
The distinction between the sphere of market and the sphere of public discourse remains central to liberalism. But under capitalism, the public sphere becomes untenable due its “spontaneous” destruction by the markets’ immanent tendency towards commoditization, as we are witnessing everywhere today. In such a world, a fight towards democracy is itself a means of advancing the struggle for socialism.
Trump's Protectionism
26 March, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
Trumps' announcement of tariff hike tantamount to a beggar-thy-neighbor policy that would inevitably attract retaliation. But these current protectionist measures on capital-in-production do not in any way restrict capital-as-finance. They are just desperate and counter-productive attempts at coping with a crisis, which is itself an outcome of the process of globalization of finance.
The Importance of Dissatisfaction
17 March, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
The first step to overthrowing an oppressive system is “epistemic exteriority” or visualizing an alternative system outside of the existing one. But neo-liberal capitalism has been remarkably successful in thwarting such visualization, by proposing “epistemic closure” as an essential component of development.
The UGC Directive on Autonomous Colleges
12 March, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
Higher education in India is facing a twin danger of commoditization and communalization under the globalized capital today. This tendency is fueled further by the UGC directive that combines commoditization with a push towards centralization that is rampant under the Modi government.
The Tripura Election Verdict
07 March, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
The Tripura reverse brings out the fact that it is exceedingly difficult for an opposition party, that has an incumbent government in any state to withstand the onslaught of the BJP, and in between states the one anti-BJP opposition force is different and scattered. For the Left it means a fight for survival.
The Destruction of a University
28 February, 2018, Jayati Ghosh
The Jawaharlal Nehru University administration has, in the past two years, undermined the norms and conventions that have established it as a premier institution of higher learning in India.
A Dangerous Period
16 February, 2018, Prabhat Patnaik
Contemporary Fascism around the world is emerging as neo-liberal capitalism’s “gift” to mankind in the period of its maturity, when it submerges the world economy in a crisis, and reaches a dead-end from which there is no obvious escape.
The Problem with the Indian Left
27 December, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
The current problem with the Indian Left, and in this term I include all sections of the Left, from the so-called "parliamentary Left" to the so-called "revolutionary Left", is in my view, its lack of appreciation of the dialectics between "reform" and "revolution".
Neo-liberalism has been a disaster for Nepal
20 November, 2017,
Why is neoliberalism bad for India and Nepal? What are its major flaws? Mahabir Paudyal and Prashant Lamichhane from myRepublica caught up with Professor C.P. Chandrasekhar when he was in Kathmandu last week to discuss the impact of neo-liberal economic order in the two countries, and the prospects of a socialist-oriented economy in Nepal.
Not with a Bang but with a (prolonged) Whimper
16 November, 2017, Jayati Ghosh
The German thinker Wolfgang Streeck in his brilliant book provides a cogent critique of the nature of contemporary capitalism, and describes its ongoing extended demise without surrendering to any optimism that as it fails to deliver even in terms of its own logic all the injustice it has generated must inevitably change for the better.
Neo-Liberal Capitalism and its Crisis
24 October, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
Neo-liberal capitalism is marked by the hegemony of international finance capital which has many consequences, among which is the alarming upsurge of fascism, differing markedly from the fascism of the 1930s.
The Current Upsurge of Fascism
18 October, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
To describe the present upsurge of fascism as nationalist or populist would be misleading. Neither is it a replication of the fascism of the 1930s. However, it is marked by four features, which have been common to all fascist upsurges in the past, namely: rise of supremacism, apotheosis of unreason, proliferation of fascism as a movement, and intertwining of fascist movement and corporate capital.
The Class Content of the Goods and Services Tax
05 October, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
In the discussions about GST, the class content of this new tax regime has been missed. Through an overall increase in the taxation of the informal sector i.e. of the petty producers and the small capitalists, it has unleashed the twin process of centralization of political authority and the centralization of capital, which in turn strengthen one another.
Winner-take-all Political Funding
28 September, 2017, Jayati Ghosh
By introducing the opaque and hugely problematic system of electoral bonds, the BJP-led government at the Centre has indicated that it is not really interested in fighting corruption but only concerned with expanding its hold on power.
The Epidemico of Vigilantism
20 September, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
In a situation where the secular political leadership has lost a good deal of its credibility and grassroots vigilantism is becoming a widespread, veritable epidemic under growing fascism, the judiciary continues to remain a credible instrument for the reassertion of the values that the Constitution associated with a modern India.
America's Turn Towards Fascism and Its Contradictions
04 September, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
While the turn of the U.S. towards fascism is unmistakable, the contradictions associated with this turn, and the complexity of the process of formation of the partnership between big business and fascist upstarts within the framework of a non-fascist bourgeois State to start with, are also clearly visible.
The Triple Talaq Verdict: Victory in one battle in a much longer war
29 August, 2017, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
The Supreme Courts welcome verdict in the Triple Talaq case should bring public attention to the problems and needs of separated and divorced women across all religious communities in India.
150 years of 'Das Kapital': How relevant is Marx today?
24 August, 2017, Jayati Ghosh
After 150 years of Das Kapital, the seminal work of the 19th century economist still provides a framework for understanding contemporary capitalism. The unique social relations such as free labour and commodity fetishism, that according to Marx, define capital, are reflected in the uneven and unstable development of the world market.
A Dangerous Analogy
24 August, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
Democracy in India faces a severe threat from the penchant for centralization and uniformity that the Hindutva forces have and which Modi articulated in the Central Hall on July 1 through his misleading analogy between the GST and the integration of princely states by Vallabhbhai Patel during Independence. Such comparison puts a tax reform and democratic revolution on the same platform, confusing biased centralization with unity of the country.
On the Economic Implications of Restrictions on Cow Slaughter
11 July, 2017, Vikas Rawal
India's livestock economy is among the biggest in the world. A ban on cow slaughter would either result in more and more unproductive animals being killed in most unscientific and cruel ways or would entail such a high cost for maintaining unproductive animals that cattle rearing would cease to be a profitable enterprise for farm households. Restrictions being imposed on cow slaughter and the actions of the cow vigilantes would deal a serious blow to the agrarian economy and in particular to the livelihoods of the poor and middle peasants in rural India.
Imperialism Still Alive and Kicking: An Interview With Prabhat Patnaik
20 June, 2017,
Imperialism is the arrangement that the capitalist system sets up for imposing income deflation on the working population of the third world for countering the threat of inflation that would otherwise erode the value of money in the metropolis and make the system unviable. A delinking from globalization by an alternative State, based on a worker-peasant alliance, is required for improved living conditions of the third world working population.
Growing class resistance against "Globalization"
19 June, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
Universal non-class use of the term globalisation and its other nationalism by the bourgeoisie has enabled them to show the former as progressive and latter reactionary for all classes. But recent election results in major countries reflect the rise of resistance of the worker class against the hegemony of globalised finance capital everywhere. Even in India, for the first time in three decades, anti-labour policies are being challenged by strong peasant movements in many states.
Why workers lose
30 May, 2017, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The IMFs push to delink the decline in the share of labour in national income from the rise of finance, neoliberalism and globalisation leads to a set of banal prescriptions on how to deal with a problem that is at the centre of the crisis of capitalism today.
Industrial Growth and Demonetization
24 April, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
Recent data on the manufacturing sector dispel all the lies that government propaganda has been peddling of late about demonetization having had no recessionary effect.
The Nefarious Money Bills
03 April, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
The amendment of the Company Act by the BJP government is a massive assault on democracy and a legitimisation of the fusion of corporate and State power, and a license for big-ticket corruption.
The Rise and Fall of South Korea's Chaebols
15 March, 2017, C.P. Chandrasekhar
Even though an alliance between big business and politicians is threatening the survival of democracy in South Korea, a near-unprecedented process of penalising corruption and bribery has begun there because of popular pressure.
Evolution of India as a Nation
06 March, 2017, Sitaram Yechury
This piece is the author's deliberations made in the Opening Session, "The Idea of the Nation" of the day-long Seminar on "Interpreting the World to Change It", held on February 11, 2017, in New Delhi to mark the release of Festschrift for Prabhat Patnaik.
Spreading light: Are the Modi governments electricity promises being fulfilled?
31 January, 2017, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
The government's claim that it has ensured electricity for all does not seem to be warranted by the evidence.
No Digital Base for a Cashless Economy
27 January, 2017, C.P. Chandrasekhar
In the absence of a digital base for a cashless economy, Indias road to a near-cashless economy seems fairly long and the journey is likely to be slow and tedious.
The Pursuit of Unreason
09 January, 2017, Prabhat Patnaik
Modis demonetization can be compared with Idi Amins fiat in 1972 as both are instances of extreme unreason. But while Amins was an untenable and extremely inhumane solution to the problem it addressed, Modis is a complete non-solution to the problem it addresses which is also inhumane, and hence constitutes an even greater act of unreason.
The Dialectics of Authoritarianism
22 December, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
The decision to demonetise overnight as much as 86 percent of the currency of a country which is predominantly currency-using, is necessarily irrational, undertaken in the quest of a heroism that is a necessary feature of an authoritarian regime.
Understanding the American Right
26 October, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
One of the reasons for the solid, intense support that Donald Trump commands is his complete disdain for political correctness, which appears exhilarating and liberating to such people who have felt suppressed for so long.
Developing "Infrastructure"
25 October, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
One can intervene in income distribution in an egalitarian direction by restraining the investment in infrastructure that is met at the expense of other socially-pressing needs and rationing the infrastructure in question.
Managing the Corporate-Communal Alliance
02 August, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
To keep the corporate-communal alliance going, the recalcitrant elements on both sides have to be managed carefully and the alliance must deliver to the partners who constitute it.
The Post-1991 Growth Story
29 July, 2016, C.P. Chandrasekhar
Economic growth post liberalization has been riding on a credit bubble. Neither has it made the manufacturing or exports sector robust, nor has delivered any benefits to those steeped in poverty and deprivation.
25 Years of Economic Reforms: Agriculture
27 July, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
The inability to resolve the pressing concerns with respect to food production, distribution and availability is one of the important failures of the entire economic reform process.
Globalization and the Worlds Working People
11 July, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
Contrary to the impression that Globalization would benefit all, it has actually worsened the conditions of the broad mass of the working people in both parts of the world.
Broken Promises to India's Youth
13 June, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
Quite contrary to its original promise, job creation no longer seems to be a major policy priority of the Modi government, which has shown itself to be remarkably anti-youth.
Two Tales of Contrast
26 May, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
Among the terrible legacies of the Modi government's first two years, are its double standards, as evidenced by the recent experiences, which will have negative repercussions.
Societal Involution in the North
16 May, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
Recent social and political trends in the US and in parts of Europe point to the regressive tendencies that seek to recreate a past that seems less complicated, but manages to intensify unhappiness.
Capitalism and the Oppressed Castes
29 April, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
The development of capitalism in any society brings about a complete transformation in the way we look at all social questions including the question of caste oppression.
The State of the Economy
08 April, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
There is a remarkable constriction of the size of the domestic market and stagnation of industrial sector in India due to inadequate purchasing power in the hands of the people.
Budget 2016-17: Signs of paralysis
16 March, 2016, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The divergence between the rhetoric and the actual allocations in the Budget 2016-17 depicts the ruling party's inability to use the fiscal lever to push for growth and welfare.
Anti-national Economics
16 March, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
The author here argues that the policies that go against the interests of the people are anti-national and NDA's economic policies are profoundly anti-national in that sense.
Budget 2016-17: Hype is all
15 March, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
Behind all the hype about a pro-poor budget, the actual provisions of the government for the major social sectors are found to be too paltry to improve the lives of the poor.
Why do we have Unemployment?
14 March, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
Under neoliberal capitalism, where the level of activity requires bubbles to sustain itself, the existence of unemployment must be attributed to the paucity of aggregate demand.
A Sinister Pattern Underway
07 March, 2016, Aruna Roy & Nikhil Dey
The ruling party is doing its best to establish that being critical of its government is tantamount to being anti-national. It is time for us to realise that the freedom won so hard, is under threat unless we collectively protect our constitutional rights.
The Battle to Defend the Employment Guarantee Scheme!
12 February, 2016, Smita Gupta
In the face of the strong opposition from various sections of the society, ensuring the proper implementation of MGNREGA is one struggle that has to be constantly fought.
Privatization: Any method in this madness?
03 February, 2016, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The government signals towards winding down the public sector allowing the private sector to occupy the spaces it has, for long, avoided. But this predatory exercise involves large developmental costs.
MNREGA under the Modi Regime
21 January, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
The continuous cutting down of the financial outlays for the programmes like MNREGA clearly indicates the central government's appalling disregard for its legal obligations.
Growth through Redistribution
21 January, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
Contrary to the portrayal by the neoliberal spokesmen, the Left position does not accept the growth versus redistribution dichotomy, rather asserts that growth can occur in a sustained manner through redistributive measures.
The Abolition of the NDC
11 January, 2016, Prabhat Patnaik
The abolition of the NDC adds a final touch to the Modi governments project of centralizing powers and resources, which is an essential element of the neo-liberal strategy.
The Heavy Price of Economic Policy Failures
07 January, 2016, Jayati Ghosh
While the citizenry pay a heavy price for economic policy failures, those responsible for the implementation of this are never blamed and they continue to impose their power and expertise on economic policies and on governing institutions.
A Candid Assessment?
06 January, 2016, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The Finance Ministry's mid-year review talks of positives, that are more in the nature of disappearing negatives, but it cannot conceal the fact that there has been little advance on the development front.
IDBI Bank: The door to denationalisation
04 January, 2016, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The decision to privatise IDBI Bank is the beginning of a larger process of denationalisation of banking in India that would lead to exclusionary banking structure most unsuited to India's development needs.
What can Corporate Planning Learn from National Planning
29 December, 2015, Pronab Sen
This paper examines the historical development of national planning in India and identifies the lessons that corporate planning can draw from the long and varied experience.
The Seventh Pay Commission Report
14 December, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
A drastic squeeze on salary increases and a widening of disparities within the real emoluments of the central government employees imposed by the 7th Pay Commission typically characterizes a neo-liberal regime that must be resisted.
Capital Goods Conundrum
24 November, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
While the Government appears to recognise the importance of expanding and strengthening India's capital goods industry, the policy signals it sends seem contrary and confusing.
The Stench of Counter-Revolution
13 November, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
Today we witness an attempt to change the nature of the Indian State to a Hindu Rashtra, which is a hallmark of the counter-revolution and needs to be resisted with all strength.
The Slogan of "Make in India"
10 November, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
Although apparently the "Make in India" campaign appears innocuous, it is actually a dangerous one since the potential thrust of the campaign is in the direction of constricting democracy and squeezing the working people.
The State as Fiefdom
06 October, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
Using the State machinery for settling personal scores must qualify as corruption and must be opposed.
Europe's Refugee "Crisis"
30 September, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
Asylum seekers do not have an easy time anywhere, but the richer countries have without question been meaner, more oppressive and more restrictive in their dealings with them.
The Retreat of the Emerging Markets
16 September, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
The process of export-led growth strategy that led to declining wage share and increasing inequalities and environmental problems has ultimately proved to be unsustainable.
"De-Linking" and Domestic Reaction
07 September, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
The author here highlights the fact that it is not de-linking from globalization but globalization itself that conduces to a strengthening of reactionary forces.
The Debate on GST
19 August, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
Transition to a GST regime involves various issues; of which reduction in the powers of the states and the regressive nature of its distributive impact deserve greater attention.
Why the Fight for a GST?
06 August, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The claims of the government that the transition to a GST regime would increase revenues mobilised and raise GDP growth are based on models that are by no means robust.
The Internet in "Digital India"
24 July, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
According to the latest NSSO data, the proportion of Indian households in which at least one member had access to the internet is far short of the near universal connectivity envisaged by the Digital India mission.
Looking Back at Debt Relief for the Germans
21 July, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
In the current Eurozone attitudes towards Greece, it is often forgotten that Germany was the major beneficiary of debt write-offs in the 20th century when Greece was its creditor.
Pachhwara Coal Mines, Jharkhand: Privatisation of coal mining and rights of adivasis
21 July, 2015, Vikas Rawal & Prakash Viplav
Privatisation of coal mining in Amrapara has facilitated a loot of national resources and deprived the poor adivasi peasants of the benefits that rightfully belong to them.
Great Dream of Prosperity
21 July, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The emphasis on the latest GDP growth numbers, when the figures from other indicators point to the opposite, may be the governments only option to show that all is well.
A Greek Tragedy that could have been Avoided
08 July, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
The EU's insistence on grinding austerity measures and stubborn resistance to even consider the option of debt restructuring forced the Greek people into greater hardship.
The Destruction of Education
26 June, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
The era of globalization of capital brings along a process of destruction of education, but the intrusion of communal-fascism into education is an added element in case of India.
The Beleaguered Indian Farmer
24 June, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The forecast of a poor monsoon is a real bad news for the Indian farmers as it would not only reduce crop production leading to shortages but also encourage speculative holding.
Economics and the Two Concepts of Nationalism
22 June, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
It is important to differentiate the kind of nationalism that informed the anti-colonial struggle in India from the bourgeois nationalism that had emerged in Europe.
Skating on Thin Ice
01 June, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
Indian economy, under the first year of Modis rule, has experienced massive attack on the welfare programmes, sluggish growth of exports and an increase in the trade deficit.
How Food was Moved to the Margins of the New Household Budget
29 May, 2015, Rahul Goswami
An enquiry into the private consumption expenditure indicates that a huge majority of Indias population are experiencing food insecurity in one or several forms.
The Economy: The end of euphoria
27 May, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
Despite having a good fortune of lower international oil prices, the Modi government failed to deliver growth in its first year while the expectations are still very high.
One Year of Modi Government: Social sector
27 May, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
The Modi governments vast and sweeping cuts in essential social spending will adversely impact the basic conditions of living and affect the prospects of the aspirational youth.
Fiscal Consolidation through Austerity
25 May, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The government's attempt at fiscal consolidation through austerity would not only affect growth adversely, but also has damaging effects on welfare.
Unseen Workers: Women in Indian agriculture
01 April, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
Although women play a pivotal role in Indian agriculture, it is amazing to see how their work goes unnoticed in the public domain.
How Not to Treat Agriculture
19 March, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
The Union Budget 2015 indicates that the government is going beyond what could be called benign neglect of agriculture to policy moves that are likely to harm its viability.
The Modi Government's Economic Strategy
19 March, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
In its pursuit of pushing ahead with the neoliberal agenda, the government is willing to adopt measures which, as evidence suggests, would fail as strategy.
Budget 2015-16: Bonanza for the corporate
09 March, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
Budget 2015 is a major step towards increasing the class power of capital; it is the true expression of the ideology of a neo-liberal State without any attempt at a human face.
India's Daughter: Since the Delhi rape things have got worse
09 March, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
The banning of the BBC documentary points to the fact that the Indian government's real concern is the international image of the country rather than the safety of women.
Averting a Greek Tragedy - For Now
04 March, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
The negotiations between the Syriza led Greece government and the EU is the struggle between the democratic will of the people and global finance.
Lessons from the Coal Blocks Auction
04 March, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The outcome of coal block auction suggests that the government could have stuck to expanding public sector coal production without handing the mines over to the private sector.
Growth and Hunger
23 February, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
The declining foodgrain absorption in India is indicative of growing hunger- a symptom of deprivation, caused by the privatisation of services like education and health.
In Search of Clean Air
20 February, 2015, Jayati Ghosh
The worsening atmospheric pollution in India threatens the basic health and well-being of people but sadly, almost nothing is being done in terms of effective public policy.
Prof. Bhagwati has Got It Wrong
12 January, 2015, Rohit
Jagadish Bhagwati's recent pitch for make-in-India is flawed as it ignores domestic demand and other pitfalls of an export-oriented growth strategy.
The "Niti Ayog"
12 January, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
The replacement of the Planning Commission by the NITI Ayog marks a centralization of economic power in the hands of the Central Government at the behest of neoliberalism.
Who's Really Paying for Oil
07 January, 2015, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
As the central government raises excise duties on petroleum products yet again, it is the poor that end up paying the price.
The RBI Governor's Unwarranted Remarks
02 January, 2015, Prabhat Patnaik
Dr. Rajan's criticism of the debt-waiver scheme for farmers underscores the fact that "social banking" gets progressively eliminated in the era of neo-liberalism.


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