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Walmart's Gamble and what it means for India
29 May, 2018, C.P. Chandrasekhar
By taking the majority stake in Flipkart, Walmart has committed itself to bearing losses in the medium term in a desperate gamble to thwart Amazon’s rise in India. The casualty will be the small retail business sector, which supports a large volume of self-employed and low-paid workers.
Employment Generation as an Economic Strategy for Uncertain Times
14 November, 2011, Jayati Ghosh
This is the acceptance speech made by the author at the award function of the ILO Decent Work Research Prize, 2010. Discussing the growing pressures in the current global scenario, she argues for a shift in macroeconomic strategy towards domestic wage- and employment-led growth as a means to sustainable growth, as well as an end in itself.
Employment Shifts after the Global Crisis
04 October, 2011, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
The stagnation of employment in developed countries and apparent recovery in developing countries after the Great Recession of 2008-09 have renewed perceptions of a global shift in employment to the developing world, particularly in manufacturing activities. This article uses the most recent available ILO data to examine the extent to which such a shift is actually occurring.
Approaching the 12th Plan
26 September, 2011, Jayati Ghosh
Considering India's slow growth of employment in the recent period because of our demographic bulge and increasing numbers of educated youth in search of productive employment, the need of the hour is to redesign our growth strategy and use social policy and social expenditure to generate more employment as employment creation is the most important mechanism for achieving inclusive economic growth.
Women's Work in India: Has anything changed?
09 August, 2011, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
One of the striking features of the latest National Sample Survey round results is the apparent decline in female employment in 2009-10 compared to 2004-05. The other depressing feature that emerges from the survey is that economic growth has still not generated a process of employment diversification for women.
Deciphering Employment Trends
26 July, 2011, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
One distinctive feature of the labour market in India is the fact that casual work in the construction sector has been the main source of employment during a period when India transited to its much-celebrated high-growth trajectory.
The Latest Employment Trends from the NSSO
14 July, 2011, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
No sooner were the results of the 66th Round of the National Sample Survey Organisation (relating to data collected in 2009-10) released, than they became the subject of great controversy. Surprisingly, the controversy was created not by critics of the government and its statistical system, but from within government circles!
The Growth-discrimination Nexus
13 April, 2011, Jayati Ghosh
It is argued by many that market forces break open age-old social norms, particularly those of caste and gender. However, unfortunately, capitalism in India, especially in its most recent globally integrated variant, has used social discrimination and exclusion to its own benefit, to take forward the growth tory.
Employment under the New Growth Trajectory
22 December, 2010, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
Two developments have been taken as confirmation of the view that India has transited to a virtuous, high growth trajectory in recent years. One is the evidence of near sustained 8-9 per cent rate of GDP growth since 2003-04 and the rather quick and sharp recovery of GDP growth after the deceleration triggered by the global financial and economic crisis. The second is the evidence of a significant pick up in employment growth rates between the 55th and 61st Rounds of the National Sample Survey Organisation relating to 1999-2000 and 2004-05.
The Job Loss Syndrome
04 March, 2009, C.P. Chandrasekhar
The article explores the issue of job loss being experienced in the various sectors of the Indian economy and traces their advent to the ongoing global crisis. The article also argues that the Indian government's response was delayed which further intensified the problem.
The Crisis of Home-based Work
17 June, 2008, Jayati Ghosh
Recent data on employment shows that the share of women working in manufacturing in a subsidiary capacity has been increasing continuously since 1987-88. This shows the increase in putting out home-based or other work as part of a subcontracting system for export and domestic manufacturing, which are not included in official employment statistics. These are often on piece rate basis, usually very poorly paid and without any known non-wage benefits.
Violence against Women: Economic Reforms and Increasing Insecurities
29 January, 2008, Jayati Ghosh
It is of course well-known that violence against women has deeply systemic roots, and that there is a "normalisation" of such violence where the economic and social status of women is already low. It is also increasingly recognised that such violence takes many forms. In addition to the overt physical violence (on which more below) there are what could be called "structural" forms of violence through economic, social and cultural processes.
Self-employment as Opportunity or Challenge
30 March, 2007, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
The enormous increase in the proportion and number of self-employed workers in India in recent years is still not adequately analysed. This paper looks at the conditions of self-employment in terms of perceptions of remuneration and work intensity. It is shown that the rising trend of self-employment reflects the precarious conditions of labour markets in India, where paid employment is simply not increasing fast enough to meet the needs of the growing labour force.
Women Workers in Urban India
06 February, 2007, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
The state of California in the United States has for a while been the standard bearer of policy measures that reduce state responsibility in critical areas that were typically the responsibility of public provision earlier. The privatisation of electricity utilities was one infamous example, in which California led the world and ended up providing a textbook case of how not to privatise power distribution.
Growth, Employment and Technology
05 February, 2007, Jayati Ghosh
The generation of productive and remunerative employment is probably the central process in equitable growth. This is of course a concern that is as old as the study of economic growth itself, and effectively underlies all the debates about the possibilities of ''trickle-down'' of growth. But it has acquired particular resonance in India in the recent past because of the apparent transformation of the economy and increase in its growth potential, which has surprisingly (and unfortunately) not been accompanied by commensurate increases in remunerative employment.
Being Your Own Boss
18 December, 2006, Jayati Ghosh
There are important changes taking place in labour markets in India. The results of the latest large round of the National Sample Survey Organisation, which took place in 2004-05, have just been released. They reveal some significant changes in the employment patterns and conditions of work in India over the first half of this decade.
Working More for Less
28 November, 2006, C.P. Chandrasekhar & Jayati Ghosh
According to data from the recently released NSS large survey, between 1999-2000 and 2004-05, there was a revival of aggregate employment growth to approximately the rates achieved in the 1980s. In a previous paper, we had noted that this employment growth was essentially in non-agriculture in both rural and urban areas, and dominantly in self-employment for male workers, as well as substantial increase in regular work for women workers.
The Employment-Poverty Link in Bangladesh
06 December, 2005, Jayati Ghosh
For nearly three decades now, the economy of Bangladesh has been growing at slightly more than 4 per cent, and per capita income growth even accelerated in the 1990s compared to the previous decades. In the 1980s, per capita GDP had grown slowly at the rate of about 1.6 per cent per annum.
Employment Guarantee: A Distant Dream
15 July, 2004, Sukanya Bose
The Common Minimum Programme did strongly foreground the issue of employment generation and the necessity for a pro-active public policy geared towards this all-important objective. Yet the 2004-5 budget, the first budget of the non-NDA coalition government reflecting its actual macroeconomic priorities as against its own popular rhetoric, has not addressed the issue of employment generation at all.
Bank Reform and the Rural Sector
20 January, 2004,
In the period before the nationalisation of banks, key sectors of the economy including agriculture remained thoroughly neglected in terms of availability of institutional credit.

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